IV. Although Wilson and Herrnstein suggest that various factors influ - ence criminal behavior, the most controversial aspect of their perspective was the biological factors, which include gender, low intelligence, impulsiveness, and body type. Biological Risk Factors for Involvement in Crime Mental health Mental health sits at the intersection of biological (such as genetics and neurology) and social factors (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, resulting from trauma or abuse). Biological Theories of Crime. Crime and criminal behaviour are as old as human society itself. (1991). 65-84). ), Contemporary Criminological Theory (pp. juvenile crime, gang formation, specific offender types) but they share one common assumption: some (otherwise moral) people are driven to crime out of the frustration( and Biological Theories of Crime Historical Theories (1800s – 1970s) Physical features Heredity Gender Body types Genetics Chromosomal abnormalities Intelligence The early view was that nature exerted influences on human beings that overcame socialization (nurture). Boston: Northeastern University Press. Biological Theories Today. Physical Trait Theories. However, it wasn’t until the late 19th century that psychologists attempted to systematically explain the causes of criminal behaviour. Strain Theories: Merton, Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin, Agnew Strain theories may focus on different aspects of criminal behavior (e.g. The belief that one can determine a person’s character, moral disposition, or behavior by observing his or her physical characteristics is ancient. Crime theories are also categorized based on their levels and scopes, and evaluated as five levels from large scale to individual factors; (i) societal macro level theories, (ii) community or locality level theories, (iii) group and socialization influence theories, (iv) crime events and routine activities, and (v) individual-level theories. This literature review categorizes these perspectives into five areas, provides a brief overview of each, and analyzes and synthesizes the relevant, elements within each area. Evidence suggests that mental health can have both direct and indirect links to criminality. Biological Theories and Criminal Behavior may affect a person’s early ability to discern right from wrong, however, once they are incorporated in … It was commonly believed that offenders behaved differently because they were physically different from non-offenders. In P. Cordella and Larry Seigel (Eds. (1990). Ellis, Lee. Early theories of crime saw criminals as biologically different to non criminals. Crime has high and diverse costs. their theory, one researcher suggested the name operant-utilitarian theory of criminality. Italian School biological explanations have not resonated in criminal justice systems in America. Perhaps even more tragic, however, isthe indirect damage to society. Monoamine oxidase and criminality: Identifying an apparent biological marker for antisocial behaviour. Several psychological theories have been used to understand crime and delinquency. However, some traces still exist. Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, 28, 227−251. Ellis, Lee. 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